Thursday, June 21, 2012

Vegan Doping: Forget Carbo-Loading, Lets Talk Nitrate Loading

By now, I assume you’ve all heard about Lance Armstrong who was recharged with doping last week and is currently suspended from all athletic events including Ironman and is threatened with having his seven Tour De France victories stripped (Armstrong qualified earlier in the season for the Ironman World Championship in Kona.) Rather than going into a rant about if I think he did it or not, the ethics behind doping, how this helps or hurts the sport, or any of the other mumbo-jumbo that is currently trending, I’d rather offer an alternative to people looking to get that extra little push from their training that is not only legal but is also incredibly healthy.

(Side note: Regardless of what he did nearly a decade ago, his performances in recent Ironman competitions have been stunning, and Armstrong credits his new experiments with plant-based veganism for much of his recent ability.) 

Several new studies over the past few years have found that a diet high in beets can actually do amazing things for athletes, including drastically improving performance. In the past I’ve written about how plant-based diets can lower inflammation allowing an increase in training, as well as increased energy and stamina all while decreasing your risk of many lethal diseases. But the power of beets seem to leave even these attributes in the dust.

In 2009 a study found that beet juice has the ability to dramatically lower the muscles need for oxygen. The reason athletes train is to strengthen their heart and lungs. As this happens the body becomes more efficient, delivering more oxygen throughout their system allowing their muscles to perform more work. However, no matter how good of an athlete a person is, once the oxygen reaches the muscles, it does the same amount of work. Superior athletes only advantage is the ability to pump more oxygen to their muscles more quickly and efficiently. This can be compared to a car. A sports car and a normal sedan both use fuel exactly the same, however the sports car will be fast simply because it has a stronger engine which can use the fuel more effectively. However the fuel is doing the same amount of work in both the sports car and the sedan.

At least that is what traditional sports science always told us.

A new study took eight cyclists and measured their oxygen levels while cycling on an indoor trainer. They did the test at several times, including before and after taking placebos, as well as after having consumed two glasses of beet juice for several days. After drinking beet juice for a few days in a row, the cyclists were able to perform the same amount of work with 19% less oxygen. When they were cycling at full pace to exhaustion, they were able to increase their endurance to fatigue by an astounding 16%.

It is worth mentioning that before this experiment, there was no known food, drug, or steroid that could actually increase energy extraction from oxygen.  However, it appears that beet juice made their bodies significantly more efficient.

Why Beets? Well, besides being packed with macro, micro, and phyto-nutrients, beets offer one of the most concentrated sources of nitrates. When compared to berry juice (also packed with goodness, absent the nitrate) performance after beet consumption improved while the berry juice did nothing to affect normal performance. 

This is where it gets a bit complex, so hold on to your hats. After consumption, nitrate is absorbed in our stomachs and then actively pumped back into out mouth through our salivary glands. This is done because our body knows we have special bacteria living on our tongues which takes the nitrates and converts them into nitrites which are then re-swallowed, re-absorbed and finally sent off to the cells in our muscles. Here the nitrites are converted yet again into nitrate-oxide. This nitrate-oxide then helps take the place of oxygen in the muscles, therefore requiring less oxygen to perform more work. Because the nitrate needs to be absorbed by bacteria on the tongue using antiseptic mouthwash or excessive spitting after absorbing the nitrates was found to cancel the benefits.

So if you are preparing for marathon season, have a big cycling event or racing in a triathlon, instead of worrying about carbo-loading before your race, perhaps you should consider a diet high in nitrates, including beets, and dark leafy-greens such as kale, collards and arugula. But be warned, while nitrates found naturally in fruits and vegetables can increase performance, the nitrates added to cure meat (think bacon and hotdogs) are actually highly potent carcinogens that are linked to all types of cancers. This is because instead of turning into nitrate-oxide as they do when nitrates are ingested from beets and dark greens, they convert into nitrosamines. As it turns out, this is because meat is void of vitamin C, which blocks the conversion of nitrates to nitrosamines. As such, the nitrates found in bacon and hotdogs convert into the harmful nitrosamines during the processing stage, making all cured meats harmful regardless of what they are eaten with; while veggies continue to have beneficial affects. As such, perhaps you should consider trading your next BLT for an arugula and beet salad or simply add those ingredients to your smoothies!

(my favorite way to add beets to my diet is by peeling and shredding them)

Besides running a bit faster and a bit longer, beets have other advantages that make them beneficial to everyone’s diet. According to Dr. Mikhail Tombak, a scientist and longevity expert, beets have also been shown to that improve “blood structure and cure diseases of the circulatory system, large intestine, and digestive system." Tombak also says beet juice helps dissolve liver, kidney and bladder stones.

 So what is the take from all of this? Well, athletes will see their performance improve if they ingest a large amount of nitrite-rich foods before they race. Perhaps I am bit of quixotic but I’d like to think Lance was simply benefitting from the power of the beet.

Dr. Greger of has nearly an hour of video lectures on the topic.

These were the most relevant sources considered:
Schorah CJ, Sobala GM, Sanderson M, Collis N, Primrose JN. Gastric juice ascorbic acid: effects of disease and implications for gastric carcinogenesis. Am J Clin Nutr. 1991 Jan;53(1 Suppl):287S-293S.

Webb AJ, Patel N, Loukogeorgakis S, Okorie M, Aboud Z, Misra S, Rashid R, Miall P, Deanfield J, Benjamin N, MacAllister R, Hobbs AJ, Ahluwalia A. Acute blood pressure lowering, vasoprotective, and antiplatelet properties of dietary nitrate via bioconversion to nitrite. Hypertension. 2008 Mar;51(3):784-90. Epub 2008 Feb 4.

Eaton SB, Eaton SB 3rd. Paleolithic vs. modern diets--selected pathophysiological implications. Eur J Nutr. 2000 Apr;39(2):67-70.

Vermeer IT, Moonen EJ, Dallinga JW, Kleinjans JC, van Maanen JM. Effect of ascorbic acid and green tea on endogenous formation of N-nitrosodimethylamine and N-nitrosopiperidine in humans. Mutat Res. 1999 Jul 16;428(1-2):353-61.

Liu CY, Hsu YH, Wu MT, Pan PC, Ho CK, Su L, Xu X, Li Y, Christiani DC; Kaohsiung Leukemia Research Group. Cured meat, vegetables, and bean-curd foods in relation to childhood acute leukemia risk: a population based case-control study. BMC Cancer. 2009 Jan 13;9:15.

Crinnion WJ. Organic foods contain higher levels of certain nutrients, lower levels of pesticides, and may provide health benefits for the consumer. Altern Med Rev. 2010 Apr;15(1):4-12.

Monday, June 11, 2012

Be Somebody: A Book Review of Eat & Run

How often do autobiographies of vegan endurance athletes get published? Well apparently, this summer they are coming out at a rate of every-other-week. Two weeks ago Rich Roll released his Tour De Force Finding Ultra. This week we saw the release of ultrarunner Scott Jurek’s Eat & Run.

Jurek, like Roll, is a plant-based vegan who first came to fame after being highlighted in Born to Run. Similar to Roll, much of his book focuses on how his diet helped him overcome insurmountable odds, including running ultra marathons with broken ankles and toes to become one of the world’s greatest ultrarunning athletes.  

While autobiographical, Jurek keeps his sport on center stage throughout his narrative. Often skipping over much of his life outside of running, the book is really about his journey of training and racing. For instance, Jurek’s first marriage and subsequent divorce only earn a few paragraphs of comment, while entire chapters are comprised of specific races.

He does give a sold account of his childhood, which was largely a lonely experience, growing up in a relatively poor family in Minnesota (he admits his family used “government cheese” during times). Much of his childhood was spent helping to care for his mother, who was afflicted with MS; while also having to suffer the harsh discipline of his father. While Jurek resists the urge to view his childhood with rose-tinted glasses, he does believe that it was the rugged discipline that his father instilled in him at a young age which helped him achieve success as an ultrarunner. His mantra in life was something his father often told him: Sometimes you just do things.

Perhaps Jurek’s happiest memory during that time took place on the slopes. Throughout high school, Jurek was a competitive skier. In fact, he started running as a way to maintain his endurance during the off-season. His best friend, Dusty, who Jurek admits is a more natural athlete, but who also lacked the discipline to train and become a professional athlete, convinced Jurek to enter his first marathon and then his first ultra in 1994, where he placed second, right behind his friend.

By 1998, Jurek was traveling around the country and placing well, if not winning nearly every ultra he entered, often setting new course records along the way. Then in 1999, Jurek began moving towards a vegan diet and won the prestigious Western States 100-Mile Endurance Run. Seen as one of the most difficult races, Jurek won the race an unprecedented seven times in a row, and crediting veganism for much of his success (during his second Western States victory, Jurek was completely raw).

Throughout the book, Jurek’s writing is as fluid and smooth as his running stride. Perhaps the most unique aspect of the book is that Jurek finishes the end of each chapter with a tip on how to improve one’s ability to run and then a recipe. Few books will inspire you more. In fact, throughout the book, only the desire to see what happens on the next page kept me from lacing up my shoes and going for a run. 

At his recent book launch in New York City, Jurek led a fun run which attracted nearly 100 people in Central Park and then packed the seats of the New York Society for Ethical Culture. (He signed my book, “Anthony, Be Somebody.” Doesn’t he know I already am “somebody?”)


Anyway, if you are looking for an inspiring and fun read, run over to your nearest bookstore and pick up a copy of Eat & Run today. Be sure to check back soon, as I plan on sharing on of his recipes.